Diagnostic Assays : Personalized medicine


Multicolor Reporter Cells for Detecting and Quantifying HIV-1

UW–Madison researchers have developed highly sensitive and specific reporter cell lines suitable for automated detection of HIV in a microfluidic platform. The multicolor fluorescence-based cell readouts respond robustly to HIV-1 infections, and are useful for tracking the spread of HIV-1 infection and ideal for implementation in an automated Q-VOA assay.

The reporter cells are based on coupling fluorescent markers turned ‘on’ in response to HIV infection to markers turned ‘off’ by the virus. Calculating net ‘on/off’ ratios over time, relative to standards, allows for high sensitivity and favorable signal-to-noise. The ability to amplify response signals with minimal background and without the need for chemical substrates represents a significant improvement over existing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or chemiluminescence-based single reporter lines.

Application of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase/System for Direct Metabolism of Xenobiotics

UW-Madison researchers have now shown that NADH cytochrome b5 reductase, along with cytochrome b5, can directly metabolize a hydroxylamine drug metabolite that may be important in sulfonamide drug hypersensitivity. Thus, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 play a direct role in drug detoxification. Since many compounds generate hydroxylamine metabolites, including AIDS drugs and some carcinogens, differences in the activity or expression of the NADH cytochrome b5 reductase system may be important in drug toxicity and possibly carcinogenesis.