Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation


WARF Accelerator Program Technologies

WARF Accelerator selects WARF’s most commercially promising technologies and provides expert assistance and funding to enable achievement of commercially significant milestones. WARF believes that these technologies are especially attractive opportunities for licensing.


Integrated Capacitor, Inductor and Resistor for Use as a Power Converter Filter

High-power electrical equipment such as electrical motors are increasingly powered using alternating current (AC) synthesized using semiconductor devices. Desirably, the semiconductors are operated in...

Compounds And Methods For Treating Seizure Disorders


Full Coverage Spray and Drainage System for Orientation-independent Removal of High Heat Flux

Removal of heat from electronic circuitry is one of the limiting factors in the design and performance of most computer systems. One current method of heat removal involves using a cone-shaped spray t...

Improved Sensor Enables Sensitive Detection of Large Molecules in Mass Spectrometry

Mass spectrometry is a highly selective and quantitative technique that is widely used to determine the chemical composition of a sample. Applications of this analytical tool include measuring isotope...

Methods and Compositions for Treating Prostate Cancer Using DNA Vaccines

Prostate cancer is a significant health risk for men over the age of 50 and currently is a pervasive health threat with as many as 200,000 new cases diagnosed each year in the US alone. At present, t...

Method for Improving Performance in a Sparse Multipath Environment Using Reconfigurable Arrays

The most salient feature of wireless communication channels is signal propagation over multiple scattering paths. Although this so-called multipath signal propagation leads to undesirable signal fadin...

Robust and Improved Surfaces for Biological Microarrays That Reduce Nonspecific Binding

Biological microarrays are valuable tools that enable the parallel analysis of thousands of different analytes. However, one of the chief problems with existing protein microarrays is the nonspecific ...

Improved Methods for Producing Low-Cost Protein-Polysaccharide Conjugates for Use in Foods and Beverages

Protein-polysaccharide conjugates (PPCs) are useful as emulsifiers in foods and beverages.  Because the polysaccharide stabilizes the protein, such conjugates have superior functional properties, inc...

Efficient, Lower Cost Chemical Transformation of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Fuels and Chemicals

Cellulosic biomass has tremendous potential as a renewable resource for the production of fuels and chemicals.  It is especially promising because it is inexpensive and readily available from crop re...

Post-Processing MRI Fat Suppression Method to Enhance Image Quality and Improve Medical Diagnostics

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic imaging technique that is especially effective for soft tissues such as the brain and other organs. To produce an MR image, the patient is subjected to...

Vertical Cavity Light Sources Based on Stacked Membranes

Improvements in technologies such as cell phones, laptops and small digital electronics are the result of the increasing capability of electronics and photonics. However, there is a continuing need fo...

Efficient and Automated Analysis of Thin Structures to Enhance Engineering 3-D Modeling Software

Mechanical engineers commonly employ a software modeling tool called finite element analysis (FEA) to virtually simulate a design prior to physical prototyping.  In FEA, a three dimensional (3-D) mod...

A Photopatternable Layer for Controlling Block Copolymer Microdomain Orientation

The lithographic process is one of the key enabling technologies of the digital electronics era.  Lithography allows hundreds of millions of components to be fabricated on a single chip with pattern ...

An Injectable Nanovehicle for a Cancer Treatment Combination of Paclitaxel, Rapamycin and 17-AAG

Two-drug combinations of paclitaxel and rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor) as well as paclitaxel and 17-AAG (an enhanced version of geldanamycin and Hsp90 inhibitor) have progressed into human clinical tri...

β-cyclodextrin Removes Off-Flavors from Soy Protein, Increases Flavor Stability

Although purified proteins are bland and lack flavor, they can influence flavor perception by directly interacting with flavor compounds or by acting on flavor precursors.  This can lead to the devel...

Pipelined Lookup Grid Architecture (PLUG)–Fast, Cool and Flexible Network Processing

Computer networks function by connecting spatially separated computers with “links” – electrical conductors, fiber optics and radio waves.  The majority of network protocols work by dividing a ...

Improved Molecule Mass Detection Using Electron Field Emission from Kinetically Impacted Membranes

Mass spectrometry is a broadly applicable analysis tool for detecting and characterizing molecules and other chemical species, including complex mixtures of biomolecules such as peptides, proteins or ...

Modular Peptide Binds to Biomaterials and Promotes New Bone Formation

Musculoskeletal conditions cost an estimated $254 billion each year in the United States, and bone and joint diseases account for half of all chronic conditions in adults over the age of 50. Current c...

Liquid Crystal-Based Assay for Rapid and Precise Detection of Endotoxin in the Presence of Masking Agents

Bacterial contamination is a major risk in biologics manufacturing and the presence of endotoxin, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, is vigorously tested for in protein and DNA/RNA...

SmartRE: A Framework for Coordinated Network-Wide Caching

The bandwidth of a computer network is a measure of the rate of data transfer.  Limits on bandwidth may result from physical limitations of the media as well as processing limitations.  Increasing b...

High-Yielding Method for Converting Biomass to Fermentable Sugars for Biofuel Production

Lignocellulosic biomass is a very desirable feedstock for biofuel production.  If the fermentation process for lignocellulose could be optimized, conversion of this biomass could yield 25 to 50 billi...

Fatty Acid-Producing Microbes for Generating Medium- and Long-Chain Hydrocarbons

New, renewable sources of transportation fuel are needed to meet continuing demand. While the main focus has been on biomass-derived gasoline alternatives such as ethanol and other short-chain alcohol...

Large-Area, Nanoperforated Graphene Materials for Semiconducting Applications

Recently, interest and research in graphene has grown rapidly due to its outstanding electrical properties. Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon-based material, has high tensile strength, stiffness, opt...

Microfluidic Device for Rapid Nucleic Acid Isolation and Purification

Extraction and isolation of nucleic acids from biological samples is an essential prerequisite for further amplification, detection and quantification of specific genetic sequences. The first step in ...

Prioritized Data Mapping to Recover High Usefulness Data for Improved Wireless Communications

Sophisticated wireless transceivers transmit digital data encoded into a physical signal such as a radio wave. The encoding process changes multiple bits making up a data unit into symbols that descri...

Improved Delivery of Rich Media Content over Wireless Networks

Rich, high quality media content is becoming increasingly available through the Internet. As a result, user expectation of accessing such content over wireless-enabled devices continues to grow. While...

Cranberry Variety Trade Named "Sundance," with Large Berry Size and Favorable Bud Set Traits

Cranberry is Wisconsin’s number one fruit crop. Wisconsin provides nearly 60 percent of the U.S. supply, and significant growth in demand, particularly for fruit for sweetened dried cranberries, is ...

Antenna-Based Power Generation with Nanoscale Rectifying Elements

“Rectennas” are antennas that can receive radio signals and rectify them to generate electrical power for wireless power transfer. Potential applications for rectennas range from large-scale power...

Improving Biomass Conversion Efficiency by Modifying Lignin so Plant Cell Walls Are More Digestible and Fermentable

Lignocellulosic biomass is a very desirable feedstock for biofuel production. If the fermentation process for lignocellulose could be optimized, conversion of this biomass could yield 25 to 50 billion...

Transgenic Lignin Easier to Break Down for Biofuel

Lignocellulosic biomass is a very desirable feedstock for biofuel production. If the fermentation process could be optimized, conversion of this biomass could yield 25 to 50 billion gallons of ethanol...

Lignin from Transgenic Poplar Is Easier to Process

Lignin is an important plant cell wall component that provides structural support and vascular functions. It is one of the most abundant organic polymers on Earth, constituting about 30 percent of non...

High Power, High Efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers with Reduced Electron Leakage

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are made of layered semiconductor materials. The structures’ cores are composed of tens of stages, each of which consists of three regions: an electron injector, an act...

New Method for Direct Patterning in Block Copolymer Lithography

Most microelectronic devices are fabricated using top-down processes such as photolithography. Current top-down processes face growing limitations as the demand for smaller scale applications increase...

Consumer-Friendly Test for Detecting Very Small Amounts of Bacteria or Other Cells

The presence of even low levels of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in various products like leftover food can be dangerous and possibly lethal. However, most methods for detecting pathogens invo...

Compounds to Treat Hyperlipidemia and Fatty Liver Disease

Hyperlipidemia is a condition strongly associated with obesity and is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. To help combat hyperlipidemia, the pharmaceutical indust...

Microcellular Foamed Plastics with Reduced Cost and Improved Surface Quality

Microcellular injection molding is a process that produces lightweight and dimensionally stable plastic components while using fewer raw materials than standard injection molding techniques. The proce...

Hybrid Analog-Digital Transceiver for Enhanced Wireless Communications

The widespread use of wireless communication applications in daily life has resulted in an increased need for power and bandwidth efficiency in emerging wireless transceivers. Two recent technological...

Electrically-Small, Super-Resolving Antennas and Arrays

The rise of wireless technology use in daily life has increased the need for electrically-small antennas with performance levels that exceed conventional limits. An electrically-small antenna is an an...

Method for the Growth of Uniform 3-D Nanorod Networks

Nanotubes and nanowires are used extensively to tailor material properties. However, wide implementation of their extraordinary characteristics has been difficult due to their 1-D geometry and limited...

Unleashing Biomass Sugars Using Bromine Salt

Methods to produce bioethanol from cornstarch or sugarcane are inadequate to meet the global demand for renewable fuels. To be sustainable, biofuel production should rely on abundant, cheap, inedible ...

GMP Protein Burns Fat, Boosts Bone Strength in Women

Bone mineral loss is a pervasive and potentially devastating consequence of aging. Post-menopausal women are at special risk for the fractures, fragility and debilitations linked to osteoporosis.

Lattice Mismatched Heterojunction Structures And Devices Made Therefrom


Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria

Plant biomass represents a vast and renewable source of energy. However, harnessing this energy requires breaking down tough lignin and cellulose cell walls. In nature, certain microbes can deconstruc...

Patch for Delivering Therapeutic Cells into Heart

Throughout a person’s lifetime the heart undergoes slow cellular turnover. This steady regeneration is critical to maintaining healthy cardiac function from birth to old age. The heart’s ability t...

High-Symmetry, Bicontinuous Lyotropic Liquid Crystals with Percolating Nanoscale Domains

Liquid crystals, soft materials comprised of assemblies of organic molecules that exhibit long-range order at the five to 100 nanometer length scale, find widespread application in consumer goods rang...

Hibiscus Cannabinus Gene Discovery to Enable Altered Plant Lignin

Plant cell wall utilization in a variety of natural and industrial processes is hampered by the lignin component. To make lignin easier to degrade, Wisconsin researchers discovered how chemically reac...

Natural Feed Additive Combats Gastrointestinal Infection in Livestock and Poultry

Reaping billion dollar losses every year, coccidiosis is a common protozoan infection of agricultural animals that targets the digestive system. Its symptoms include weight loss, diarrhea and suppress...

Electrically Small, Super-Directive Antennas Inspired by Insect Anatomy

Antennas that are electrically small, those with dimensions relatively diminutive compared to the size of the wavelengths they radiate, are integral to radio engineering, from wireless garage door ope...

One- and Two-Phase Conversion of Biomass to Furfural

Exploiting the energy potential of biomass high in cellulose and lignin—including grasses, shrubs, husks, bark, yard and mill offal not readily digestible by humans—offers a vast and renewable alt...

Sustainable Organic Aerogels for Insulation

Aerogels are the world’s lightest solid materials made by the removal of liquid from gels. Such materials may contain up to 99 percent air and combine unique properties like high porousness and exce...

New Framework Helps Compose and Scale Middlebox Software Modules for Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is an emerging model for the delivery and consumption of information technology (IT) resources. Infrastructure-as-a-service cloud providers deliver virtual servers along with network c...

Enzyme Aids Intranasal Drug Delivery

Currently, delivering drugs directly into the brain requires invasive surgery. This is because a tight cellular layer called the blood-brain barrier (BBB) not only prevents harmful substances from ent...

Better Biomass Conversion with Recyclable GVL Solvent

To recover useful carbohydrates locked in biomass, molecular bonds must be broken while avoiding further reaction of the resulting glucose and xylose sugars. This is a challenge because glucose can de...

Inhibiting Storage Browning in Cheese

For 800 years Parmesan has been one of the most sought-after cheeses and today supports a billion dollar market. Parmesan is susceptible to an unappealing browning effect that is not fully understood ...

Sharper Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Radiosurgery is a non-invasive procedure that degrades tumors and other unhealthy tissue with high-energy beams of radiation. To spare surrounding tissue, it is critical that irradiation is precisely ...

Stretchable Transistors Using Carbon Nanotube Film

Stretchable electronics have many potential applications such as implantable biosensors, wearable devices and flexible displays. Yet critical components like transistors are still based on silicon. Ef...

Block Copolymers for Sub-10 Nanometer Lithography

Block copolymer (BCP) lithography is one of the most powerful technologies of the digital electronics era, allowing millions of nanoscale components to be fabricated on a single chip.

BCPs are ...

Superabsorbent, Sustainable Aerogels

Aerogels are the world’s lightest solid materials made by removing liquid from gels. Such materials may contain up to 99 percent air and have special properties like high porosity and absorption. P140038US02

Microbes Produce High Yields of Fatty Alcohols from Glucose

Fatty alcohols are used in detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants and personal care items. More than 1.3 million tons of fatty alcohols are used worldwide each year, representing a $3 billion market.

Encrypting Intellectual Property Cores

System-on-Chip (SoC) is a technique for designing complex integrated circuits using circuit ‘building blocks’ developed by different companies. Electronic files describing each building block are...

Minimally Invasive Microwave Ablation Antennas

Microwave ablation is a minimally invasive method for treating cancer, especially solid tumors. The method uses an interstitial antenna that heats tissue with microwave energy.

These antennas r...

Superior Nanotube Film for High Performance Field Effect Transistors

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are key building blocks for nanoscale technologies given their interesting physical and chemical properties. SWCNTs are especially promising for high speed and ...

Combined Capacitor/Inductor Reduces Circuit Bulk

Inductors and capacitors are fundamental building blocks in many electrical devices and provide energy storage. Inductors store energy in the form of a magnetic field in the vicinity of a coiled condu...

Controlling Superconducting Quantum Circuits

In the exciting field of quantum computation, the performance of quantum bits (‘qubits’) is advancing rapidly. Among several implementations currently being pursued, superconductor-based circuits ...

Combatting Parasitic Worms in Livestock and Other Animals

The United States cattle industry includes about 40 million beef and dairy cows. At some point in their lives the majority of calves will graze and be exposed to parasitic worms known as helminthes. W...

Hybrid Heterostructure Light-Emitting Devices

Conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are made of an upper ‘p-type’ layer, a middle ‘intrinsic region’ and a bottom ‘n-type’ layer. Such layered structures are called PIN diodes. Curre...

Improved CT Imaging with Multisource X-Ray Tube

Computed tomography (CT) provides rapid, noninvasive imaging at high resolution. Conventional CT systems include a gantry, one or two X-ray tubes and a detector assembly that rotate together around a ...

Memory Processing Unit Boosts Performance, Cuts Energy Usage

A significant amount of time and power is spent waiting for processors to retrieve instructions and data from distant levels of memory. One approach to mitigate access latency (delay) is to use a thre...

Synthesizing Natural Products to Treat High Blood Cholesterol

Indole is one of the most abundant heterocycles in pharmaceuticals and bioactive natural products, such as indometacin, a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, and vincristine, a natural product used to...

New Discoveries in Biological Safety: Liquid Crystal Detection of Hazardous Environmental Products

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in common household and industrial products. These toxic and/or carcinogenic compounds such as toluene, benzene and styrene are difficult to detect and pers...

Middlebox Scaling for the Cloud

As data is shuffled around in computer networks, important components called middleboxes (also called network functions or NFs) examine and modify network traffic to meet security requirements, perfor...

Polymer Coating for Cell Culture Substrates

A stem cell’s microenvironment plays a key role in regulating its behavior (e.g., adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation). A variety of templates have been used to study stem cell be...

New Compounds for Treating High Blood Cholesterol and More

Indole is one of the most abundant heterocycles in pharmaceuticals and bioactive natural products, such as indometacin, a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, and vincristine, a natural product used to...

Effective and Robust Method of T Cell Expansion and Activation

Ex vivo expansion and activation of T cells are prerequisites for any form of genetically engineered T cell immunotherapy. Several expansion and activation methodologies have been developed. ...

3-D Printer for High Quality, Large-Scale Metal Parts

Despite recent advances in additive manufacturing, especially rapid plastic prototyping, there is still a need for better 3-D metal printers. Current techniques are relatively slow and not up to the t...

Enhancing Growth and Development of Non-Leguminous Crops

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide nutrients to plants and aid their growth. This symbiotic interaction is mediated by signaling molecules, most notably lipochito-oligosaccharides (LCOs). LCOs ...

Slippery Antifouling Surfaces with Health, Environmental and Consumer Applications

Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) are an emerging class of materials with unique properties. They possess useful antifouling characteristics, meaning they prevent other matter or organis...

Non-Invasive Device for Measuring Stress in Tendons, Ligaments and Muscles

Measuring muscle and ligament stress is crucial in rehabilitative medicine and medical research. Using this data, clinicians and researchers can develop treatment plans and new technologies to improve...

Boron- and Nitride-Containing Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Small Alkanes and Oxidative Coupling of Methane

C3 and C4 olefins such as propene are key starting materials in the plastics and chemical industry. The main method for producing these critical building blocks is a petrochemica...

Preen Oil: The Nutritional Approach to Chronic Inflammation

Low-grade chronic inflammation underpins many diseases affecting both human and animal health. It remains largely undiagnosed and undertreated worldwide.

Preen oil, secreted by the uropygial...

Rapid MRI Gradient Calibration Using Single-Point Imaging

In MRI, gradient distortions can cause image artifacts such as blurriness, ringing and phase error. Certain MRI techniques are more prone to the problem. In particular, gradient distortion is perhaps ...

Perovskites as Ultralow Work Function Cathode Materials

Electron emission cathode materials are found in high power electron beam devices used in defense, scientific research and communications applications as well as thermionic energy conversion technolog...

Genetic Testing for Acquired Peripheral Neuropathy in Dogs

Peripheral neuropathies are a diverse group of diseases marked by degeneration of the peripheral nervous system. These diseases affect both humans and animals. In humans, the most common form is Charc...

Epitaxial Growth Of High Quality Vanadium Dioxide Films With Template Engineering

The unique properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) lend it to a variety of applications in materials physics and solid-state electronics. Namely it exhibits a sharp metal-insulator transition ...

Location-Aware Communication System for Mobile Devices

The proliferation of LEDs for ambient lighting is driving smart lighting technologies. Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technology that uses LEDs as transmitters and light sensors (e.g...

Green Method for Producing 1,5-Pentanediol Slashes Catalyst Cost 10,000-fold

Commercial interest in the production of commodity chemicals from renewable sources continues to surge. Among these chemicals, α,ω-diols are particularly attractive because of the high market prices...

Gene Construct Encoding Mutant Thioesterase, Mutant Thioesterase Encoded Thereby, Transformed Host Cell Containing The Gene Construct, And Method Of Using Them To Produce Medium-Chain Fatty Acids


Inverter for Common Mode Voltage Cancellation

In a drive system, a voltage source inverter (VSI) may be used to transfer real power from a DC power source to an AC load. Conventional VSIs consist of two or three phase-legs, each of which is a ser...

Research Tool for Protein Conformation Analysis

The three-dimensional structure of proteins can be studied in solution using various methods of covalent and noncovalent labeling in which the readout is accomplished by mass spectrometry (MS). These ...

Point-of-Care Obstetrical Imaging for Minimally or Untrained Birth Attendants

Advance warning of some of the main causes of maternal and/or neonatal problems can prevent death and long term health complications. These causes include bleeding (e.g., from placenta previa over the...

“Green” Triboelectric Power Boards Turn Footsteps into Electricity and More

Mechanical energy takes many forms in the environment, from ambient vibrations to individual footsteps. It represents a sustainable and largely untapped energy source that could be harnessed to power ...

Indoor Navigation System for Mobile Devices

Airport travelers, retail shoppers and hospital visitors are a few of the millions of people who could benefit from improved indoor positioning. Yet even after decades of research, a simple and robust...

Rechargeable Desalination Battery

Access to fresh water is a pressing geopolitical issue and technological challenge. Desalination is a potentially viable solution considering the abundance of seawater on Earth. While reverse osmosis ...

Vanadium Dioxide Design Solution for Ultrafast Switches

The unique properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) mean it could one day outperform silicon and enable next-generation, ultralow-power devices. A key advantage of this material is that above 3...

Mutant Thioesterases


System And Method For Controlling Superconducting Qubits Using Single Flux Quantum Logic


ECMO Simulation Device for Hands-On Training and Improved Patient Outcomes

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique for providing prolonged cardiac and respiratory support to persons whose heart and lungs are unable to provide an adequate amount of gas excha...

Narrowband, Acoustically Mediated Spintronic Terahertz Emitter


Systems And Methods For Controlling Additive Manufacturing Systems


Methods of Gene Editing and Transforming Cannabis

Hemp, one of the earliest plants to be spun into fiber thousands of years ago, now commands a $6 billion global market that includes high-profile products like CBD and other cannabinoid oils. However,...

System And Method For Flow-Resolved Three-Dimensional Imaging


Dynamic Agent Injection For Cardiovascular Characterization


New Capacitive Method for More Efficient Power Generation

Many commonly used machines require moving and stationary parts to generate electricity. Conventional rotating electrical machines utilize magnetic fields and/or a change in inductance between moving ...

Crosslinkable Gemini Dicarboxylate Surfactant LLCs and Their Membranes

Aqueous lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) assemblies are useful for highly selective chemical separations, such as water desalination and selective ion-transporting membranes. LLCs are formed in water wh...

Hibiscus Cannabinus Feruloyl-Coa: Monolignol Transferase


Powering Devices with Piezoelectric ‘Sponge’

Piezoelectric materials produce electric charge in response to mechanical stress. Such materials can be utilized as very small ‘nanogenerators’ that absorb vibrations from the environment (e.g., a...

Smoother Plastic Products Using Microcellular Injection Molding

Several techniques exist for turning plastic into goods and packaging. Microcellular foams are of particular interest because they can be used to produce strong, lightweight plastic. Unfortunately, du...

Highly Foamed Plastic Parts Are Stronger and Cheaper to Produce

Microcellular injection molding produces lightweight, dimensionally stable plastic components using fewer raw materials than standard techniques.

The process, also known as ‘microcellular foa...

Combined Capacitor/Inductor with Improved Performance

Inductors and capacitors are fundamental building blocks in many electrical devices and provide energy storage. In many applications (both low- and high-powered electronics) the physical size of these...

Systems, Methods, And Media For Hierarchical Progressive Point Cloud Rendering


Methods Of Isolating Phenols From Phenol-Containing Media


An Optimized, More Efficient Method for Characterizing Microorganisms and Viruses Using Metagenomics

Metagenomics is the study of genetic material from environmental samples for detecting microbes, especially pathogens. It is increasingly used within clinical and industrial settings. While metagenomi...

Insoluble And Dispersible Protein And Dye-Containing Particles For Use As Colorants


Soybeans with Increased Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot and Drought Tolerance

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a widespread fungal pathogen that is difficult to control and can cause considerable damage to crops. In soybean, this fungus causes Sclerotinia stem rot, also kno...

Methods And Culture Substrates For Controlled Induction Of Biomimetic Neural Tissues Comprising Singular Rosette Structures


Nanopillar Arrays For Secondary Electron Emission


Membrane Detector For Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry


Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Educated Macrophages to Treat Radiation Damage and More

New therapies are urgently needed to protect patients exposed to high doses of radiation due to accidental trauma, terrorist attack or for medical purposes. Existing drugs (such as potassium iodide an...

‘Smart’ Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt

Hydrocephalus is a life-threatening condition caused by abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain. Typically it is treated through the surgical placement of a shu...

Purifying a Clostridium Botulinum Neurotoxin for Therapeutic Use

Clostridium botulinum produces the lethal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). There are several types of BoNT, and the subtype BoNT/A1 is used medically to treat muscle movement disorders and cosmet...

Novel Subtype of Botulinum Toxin for Pharmaceutical Use

Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which can cause debilitating disease but also is used to treat disorders like chronic headache, spastic muscles and strabismus.

Prostate Cancer and Melanoma Screening

Almost 200,000 men in the United States develop prostate cancer each year. More than 60,000 people develop melanoma. Early diagnosis is key to survival because the best treatment and prognosis for the...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Metabolites

In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tissue is scanned using magnetic fields that excite atoms and cause them to emit signals. These nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals can be processed into an i...

More Accurate Methods for Detecting and Quantifying Fat from Magnetic Resonance Images

Quantifying the amount of fat in the liver is crucial for the detection of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases including steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure.  Accurate fat measurements ca...